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Lipoproteins are a class of heterogeneous particles of varying sizes and densities containing lipid and protein. These lipoproteins include cholesterol esters and free cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and A, C, and E apoproteins. Total cholesterol comprises all the cholesterol found in various lipoproteins.
Factors that affect blood cholesterol levels include age, sex, body weight, diet, alcohol and tobacco use, exercise, genetic factors, family history, medications, menopausal status, the use of hormone replacement therapy, and chronic disorders such as hypothyroidism, obstructive liver disease, pancreatic disease (including diabetes), and kidney disease.
In many individuals, an elevated blood cholesterol level constitutes an increased risk of developing coronary artery disease. Blood levels of total cholesterol and various fractions of cholesterol, especially low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), are useful in assessing and monitoring treatment for that risk in patients with cardiovascular and related diseases. Blood levels of the above cholesterol components including triglyceride have been separated into desirable, borderline and high risk categories by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in their report in 1993. These categories form a useful basis for evaluation and treatment of patients with hyperlipidemia. Therapy to reduce these risk parameters includes diet, exercise and medication, and fat weight loss, which is particularly powerful when combined with diet and exercise.
The medical community recognizes lipid testing as appropriate for evaluating atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conditions in which lipid testing may be indicated include:
To monitor the progress of patients on anti-lipid dietary management and pharmacologic therapy for the treatment of elevated blood lipid disorders, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol may be used. Triglycerides may be obtained if this lipid fraction is also elevated or if the patient is put on drugs (for example, thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and tamoxifen) which may raise the triglyceride level.
When monitoring long term anti-lipid dietary or pharmacologic therapy and when following patients with borderline high total or LDL cholesterol levels, it may be reasonable to perform the lipid panel annually. A lipid panel at a yearly interval will usually be adequate while measurement of the serum total cholesterol or a measured LDL should suffice for interim visits if the patient does not have hypertriglyceridemia.
Any one component of the panel or a measured LDL may be reasonable and necessary up to six times the first year for monitoring dietary or pharmacologic therapy. More frequent total cholesterol HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride testing may be indicated for marked elevations or for changes to anti-lipid therapy due to inadequate initial patient response to dietary or pharmacologic therapy. The LDL cholesterol or total cholesterol may be measured three times yearly after treatment goals have been achieved.
Electrophoretic or other quantitation of lipoproteins may be indicated if the patient has a primary disorder of lipoid metabolism.
Effective January 1, 2005, the Medicare law expanded coverage to cardiovascular screening services. Several of the procedures included in this NCD may be covered for screening purposes subject to specified frequencies. See 42 CFR 410.17 and section 100, chapter 18, of the Claims Processing Manual, for a full description of this benefit.
Lipid panel and hepatic panel testing may be used for patients with severe psoriasis which has not responded to conventional therapy and for which the retinoid etretinate has been prescribed and who have developed hyperlipidemia or hepatic toxicity. Specific examples include erythrodermia and generalized pustular type and psoriasis associated with arthritis.
Routine screening and prophylactic testing for lipid disorder are not covered by Medicare. While lipid screening may be medically appropriate, Medicare by statute does not pay for it. Lipid testing in asymptomatic individuals is considered to be screening regardless of the presence of other risk factors such as family history, tobacco use, etc.
Once a diagnosis is established, one or several specific tests are usually adequate for monitoring the course of the disease. Less specific diagnoses (for example, other chest pain) alone do not support medical necessity of these tests.
When monitoring long term anti-lipid dietary or pharmacologic therapy and when following patients with borderline high total or LDL cholesterol levels, it is reasonable to perform the lipid panel annually. A lipid panel at a yearly interval will usually be adequate while measurement of the serum total cholesterol or a measured LDL should suffice for interim visits if the patient does not have hypertriglyceridemia.
Any one component of the panel or a measured LDL may be medically necessary up to six times the first year for monitoring dietary or pharmacologic therapy. More frequent total cholesterol HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride testing may be indicated for marked elevations or for changes to anti-lipid therapy due to inadequate initial patient response to dietary or pharmacologic therapy. The LDL cholesterol or total cholesterol may be measured three times yearly after treatment goals have been achieved.
If no dietary or pharmacological therapy is advised, monitoring is not necessary.
When evaluating non-specific chronic abnormalities of the liver (for example, elevations of transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, abnormal imaging studies, etc.), a lipid panel would generally not be indicated more than twice per year.
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Changes to Lab NCD Edit Software
Medicare Claims Processing Manual, Chapter 120, Clinical Laboratory Services Based on Negotiated Rulemaking.
07/2002 - Implemented NCD. Effective date 11/25/02. Implementation date 1/01/03. (TN AB-02-110) (CR 2130)
07/2004 - Published NCD in NCD Manual without change to narrative contained in PM AB-02-110. Coding guidance published in Medicare Lab NCD Manual. Effective and Implementation dates NA. (TN 17) (CR 2130)
02/2005 - Added reference to screening benefits. Effective date 1/01/05. Implementation date 3/11/05. (TN 28) (CR 3690)
Medicare Policies and Guidelines - NCD, LCD, Articles, LMRP
Summary: Medicare Policies and Guidelines - NCD, LCD, Articles, LMRP
Keywords: Medicare Policies and Guidelines, NCD, LCD, LMRP, national coverage determinations, local coverage determinations, local medical review policies
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