Code D75.A, Glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency without anemia, was created for the deficiency in the glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme, without hemolytic anemia. G6PD protects red blood cells against levels of reactive oxygen species molecules that accumulate and damage red blood cells. When there is a deficiency in G6PD, red blood cells are destroyed, by hemolysis. When there is a lack of healthy red blood cells because they are being destroyed faster than they can be replaced by the bone marrow, the result is hemolytic anemia.
Common signs and symptoms of hemolytic anemia are jaundice, shortness of breath, fatigue, dark urine, splenomegaly and a rapid heart rate. However, a deficiency in the G6PD enzyme alone does not cause hemolytic anemia. There are additional factors that trigger hemolytic anemia, such as infectious diseases, exposure to certain antibiotics or pain medications or the ingestion of fava beans causing the onset of favism. Without such triggers, an individual with G6PD deficiency may not ever experience any signs and symptoms of the condition. Code D75.A was created for asymptomatic individuals who do not have anemia but are at risk for anemia because of a G6PD deficiency.