SAMPLE PAGE showing data for: ABO Group and Rh Typing
Blood typing is a screening test to determine blood groups and Rh antigen for blood transfusion and pregnancy. The four blood groups A, B, O, and AB are determined by the presence of antigens A and B or their absence (O) on a patient's red blood cells. In addition to ABO grouping, most immunohematology testing includes evaluation of Rh typing tests for Rh(D) antigen. Blood cells that express Rh(D) antigen are Rh positive. Red blood cells found lacking Rh(D) are considered Rh negative. Rh typing is also important during pregnancy because of the potential for mother and fetus Rh incompatiblity. If the mother is Rh negative but the father is Rh positive, the fetus may be positive for the Rh antigen. As a result, the mother’s body could develop antibodies against the Rh antigen. These antibodies may cross the placenta and cause destruction of the baby’s red blood cells, resulting in a condition known as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.
Blood typing is performed by agglutination testing. The patient's red cells are tested with anti-A and anti-B antibodies for the presence or absence of agglutination (forward type, aka cell type), and patient's serum or plasma is tested against known A and B cells (reverse type, aka serum type, aka back type). Rh typing is done by testing patient red blood cells with anti-D antibody.
Transfusion of blood components of the correct blood type is necessary in order to prevent an adverse immunologic reaction. These reactions can range from very mild and sub-clinical to very severe or fatal, depending upon the components involved and condition of the recipient. Therefore, accurate assessment of both blood component and recipient ABO and Rh status is mandatory. The results of this testing will determine what blood group types a recipient may receive safely. For plasma components such as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets, it is important that the plasma be compatible with the recipient's red blood cells. This is always true for FFP which must be transfused in adequate volume to replace essential components in the recipient. For platelets, they can be concentrated if the ABO types are incompatible such that the amount of plasma given to the recipient is reduced to a minimum and the resulting hemolysis, if any, is reduced accordingly.
Blood Bank - Hemagglutination
Whole Blood EDTA (Lavender or Pink)
Ambient: 24 hours
Refrigerated: 7 days
Testing should be performed within 24 hours of collection; however, some laboratories have extended the stability out to 5-7 days.
Same day, usually.
Blood typing determines if the patient is group A, B, AB, or O and Rh negative or positive. In general, donor and recipient blood component types should match, for example group A red blood cells given to a group A patient; however, there are certain non-identical combinations allowed. For example, group O Rh negative blood may be given to either group A or B or AB recipients, either Rh positive or Rh negative. Some situations, for example recent transfusion, may require more time than usual to resolve and may require communication between the laboratory and patient's caregiver.
In pregnant women, the results indicate whether she is Rh positive or negative and whether she may be a candidate for receiving Rh immune globulin (RhoGAM) to prevent her from potentially developing antibodies against fetal red blood cells.
Note: Some pregnant women might express weak D antigen. This is when Rh(D) is weakly expressed, causing a weak positive reaction; however, this form has a very low (less than 1%) probability of causing an incompatibility reaction against the fetus.
(These codes are only suggestions. There is no guarantee of payment. CONSULT your payer for accurate coding information regarding this test.)
This test is associated with the following billing and diagnosis codes:
CPT® (CDT codes and descriptions are copyright American Dental Association)
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